Astronomers have taken the very first image of a black hole, and there is a lot of buzz about it. It’s a great step for the field of astrophysics, and it also confirms Einstein’s work. Black holes are complex and not well-understood. Over the last few decades, much has been learned and observed about these space structures.
Black Holes Explained
A black hole is a region in space where the gravitational field is so great that matter and light cannot escape it. Black holes are regions of space-time, meaning they do not just have length, width, and breadth, but they also have the added dimension of time. Many physicists, dating as far back as the 18th century, have made hypotheses and theories about black holes, their nature, and properties. This includes Albert Einstein, whose work is considered as one of the main pillars of modern physics.
The term “black hole” was first used in the 1960s after the use of other terms such as “dark star” and “gravitationally collapsed object.” In terms of properties and structure, it is believed that black holes have mass, charge, and angular momentum, and these properties can be observed from the outside. Contrary to popular opinion, black holes are not empty spaces or a vacuum that sucks everything in. They have so much matter packed into a relatively small space, creating the intense gravitational field. The term “event horizon” represents the boundaries of a black hole, the edge of the region of no escape. These massive structures often form when a large star collapses.
Capturing the First Image
Scientists have been attempting to learn more about black holes and to observe evidence that confirms the physics theories that have been behind most of our knowledge about these peculiar structures.
The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) is an observatory and large scale physics experiment set up in Louisiana and funded by the NSF. Its mission is to detect and study gravitational waves. One of the major highlights since its establishment in 2002 was the detection of gravitational waves in February 2016. On studying this further, it was found that this was the result of two black holes merging. Black holes collide and merge to form what is known as a binary black hole. The effect of this event is a great release of energy in the form of gravitational waves. The two black holes that merged had masses of 14.2 and 7.5 solar masses, which is a unit equivalent to the mass of the Sun.
The recent news of the capturing of the first image of a black hole has been a major breakthrough. This work involved a combined effort using a network of eight radio telescope observatories from around the world known as the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT). The goal of the network was to create a massive global virtual telescope to create the image of a supermassive black hole using data gathered from all the telescopes. Finally, scientists and the world at large can have a glimpse of the giant and mysterious space structure known as a black hole.
The black hole observed and captured in recent images lies in the center of the M87 galaxy, which is roughly 55 million light-years from the Earth. With the new EHT measurements, the mass of the black hole has been found to be about 6.5 billion solar masses.
The study of black holes is not complete without mentioning Einstein’s work. His theory of general relativity describes gravity as a consequence of the warping of space-time. The century-old theory also predicts and explains the formation of black holes as well as the detection of gravitational waves when black holes collide.